UA-53645469-1 Memphis Type History: The Podcast

Memphis BBQ Part 1: A General History with Brian Crenshaw

April 15, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Rebecca seeks out the history of barbecue instead of just eating it. In this first part of what will become a series of Memphis BBQ stories, we hear from Brian Crenshaw, a gentleman who has spent a good time diving into the history of where it originated and how Memphis's culture really generated the satisfying flavors we thoroughly enjoy today.

Let's start with the first pigs that came to America. They were 13 black Iberian pigs and were brought to Tampa Bay, Florida in 1539 by Hernando de Soto. They joined the Spanish conquistadors during their journeys through the Southeast and were used to start pig farms for the new Spanish colony. As you can imagine, people loved the taste of them. It's even been reported that American Indians were so fond of the taste of pork that attacks to acquire it resulted in some of the worst assaults on the expedition.

Brian talks about where the word barbecue or barbeque originated from (barbacoa) and the simplicity of beginning as an actual pit people would walk up to. It would eventually evolve into a drive-in and then into a sit-down restaurant. A good example of a place that likely developed through this process is Corky's BBQ because of its apparent expansions.

A favorite of Brian's and another great example of this primitive style of barbecue resides in Brownsville, TN, called Helen's Bar BQ.  

Wonder which barbecue restaurant in Memphis is the oldest?

Brian believes that would be Leonard's which has served original Memphis style pit barbecue since 1922. Leonard's Pit Barbecue is honestly the only place I've ever heard of that offers a barbecue buffet. Even more interesting, is when Brian tells us that Leonard's is where the custom of putting coleslaw on the sandwich may have started. It was a way to stretch their meat when times tough economically, however it turns out the mix of flavors is quite a marriage and thus coleslaw stands as a traditional topping.

Finally hear about how new bbq innovations started in Memphis, like barbecue nachos and pizza. Hear from Brian why Memphis barbecue is much more than just a good meal. It is so rich in Memphis history. There are so many different places to eat barbecue and each has their own rich history and relationships that make them unique from each other. It says something that this city can support so many of these local "mom and pop" shops. It's because they are true culinary artists.

For full show notes, visit memphistypehistory.com/barbeque

 

 
 

The Shadier Side of Memphis with Neil Cameron

April 9, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Caitlin connects with Neil Cameron of Strickly Elvis UK to talk about Elvis... no not actually...instead more of the shadier side of Memphis that has nothing to do with Elvis. Hear Caitlin and Neil from distant lands talk about a few crime stories that you may or may not know about.

So how did Memphis Type History and Strickly Elvis UK collide? We try to remember ourselves. While it may have been Facebook that brought us together, it was Sun Studios that gave us a meeting place. And while it's good to catch up a little, we went straight to the gritty stories that Neil has learned over time of this city he loves and visits so much.

First up... Jerry Mcgill.

For full show notes, visit memphistypehistory.com/crime

Memphis History in Bozwell + Lily

April 1, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Rebecca meets with Ben Fulfer, the man behind Bozwell + Lily, to talk about his journey and decision on starting this company. He tells us the thoughtful process behind what items he chooses to sell, who he works with, and the Memphis inspiration and history that some of his products tell.

First, did you know...?

We don’t mention this on the podcast, but did you know Ben was once a radio DJ? He also recently redesigned the setup at Ditty TV because he’s got the skills for design and aesthetics. Put these skill sets together + a traveling man with motivation and inspiration and you get Bozwell + Lily, a small shop with a lot of history and thoughtful design.

So who are Bozwell and Lily?

Well, they are Ben’s beloved dogs. And when you hear the personality each possess, you gather how it perfectly embodies the theme of the shop. When Ben tells the story of how the shop got started and its process of growth, he connects how the personalities of his pups each reflected that process.

What is the story behind the ’46 tee we most often see?

This is the tee with the Native American screen print shown above. Rebecca thought it was maybe a nod to a particular Memphis native American who perhaps made history by fighting a tribe of coyotes and saving a village. She was close… it is actually a nod to the Memphis baseball team called, “the chicks” preexisting the Red Birds we know and salute today. In particular, this imprint is something we would have seen on their jerseys in the year of ’46 which isn’t the most recognizable. If you Google Memphis Chick images, it will be a long time of scrolling before you come across this particular logo.

It then occurred to Rebecca that a good number of Bozwell + Lily products have this same vintage feel and inspiration. The type of fabric…the imagery…the banners…the hand-stitching…the screen printing…these are all details made to give each product its own type of thumbprint with a process that pays tribute to days of long ago.

Where did it start?

The first product of Bozwell + Lily was the B.B. King imprint tee. Ben tells us the story of creating that shirt, how much it cost, and how it gave him the courage to keep moving forward. Also, if you happen to own one of these shirts with the misspelled name “Boswell + Lily” on the tag, you know you have a Memphis original.

For full show notes, go to memphistypehistory.com/bozwell

The New Madrid Fault Line

March 26, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Rebecca reveals to Caitlin her recent paranoia of the New Madrid fault line and the seriousness of "the big one" for Memphis should it ever occur. But there's good new! Well... at least for those over 36 years old.

 

So what is the New Madrid Fault Line?

Wikipedia says it's the 150-mile (240 km) long seismic zone, which extends into five states. It stretches southward from Cairo, IL; through Hayti, Caruthersille and New Madrid, MO; through Blytheville into Marked Tree in AR. It also covers a part of West Tennesse, near Reelfoot Lake, extending southeast into Dyersburg.

That's a pretty big stretch of land. 

The History of New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) Earthquakes

The first known written record of an earthquake felt in the NMSZ was from a French missionary traveling up the Mississippi with a party of explorers. It happened at 1 p.m. on Christmas Day in 1699 at a site near the present-day location of Memphis.

However, most famous was a series of 3 earthquakes between 1811-12.

The first earthquake was recorded at 2:15 am in Northeast Arkansas. It caused only slight damage to man-made structures, mostly because it wasn’t greatly populated. Memphis (before it was Memphis) was shaken at a Mercalli Intensity scale of level nine. Little Prairie, MO was destroyed by soil liquefaction, trees were knocked down and riverbanks collapsed. Uplifts of the ground on the riverbed and large waves made the Mississippi river look like it was flowing upstream. Sand bars and points of islands gave way. A steamboat crew that was anchored overnight along a Mississippi River island said they awoke to find the island had disappeared below the water. Landslides covered an area of 78,000 - 129,000 square kilometers, extending from Cairo, Illinois, to Memphis, Tennessee, and from Crowley's Ridge in northeastern Arkansas to Chickasaw Bluffs, Tennessee. This event shook windows and furniture in Washington, D.C., rang bells in Richmond, Virginia, shook houses in Charleston, South Carolina, and knocked plaster off of houses in Columbia, South Carolina. Observers in Herculaneum, Missouri said it had a duration of 10-12 minutes. After all this, only one life was lost in falling buildings.

The first and largest aftershock happened that same morning at around 7:15am. It came to be known as the “Dawn” Aftershock.

The second earthquake, on January 23, is believed to be the smallest of the three main shocks and also believed by some that the epicenter was in southern Illinois. That raises concern because if that is true, then that would mean and extended section of the fault exists.

The third earthquake, on February 7, happened in Missouri and it was the largest of the series. It destroyed the town of New Madrid, it damaged many houses in St. Louis. It caused general ground warping, ejections, fissuring, severe landslides, and caving of stream banks. Uplift along the fault created temporary waterfalls on the Mississippi River and caused the formation of Reelfoot Lake. 

NMSZ Fun Facts: (because we try to make light of dark topics)

• There’s a New Madrid Historical Museum in the Missouri boot heel. There you can watch a VHS tape they play on loop, called “The Night the Earth went Crazy.”

• In 1990, there was an earthquake hype. A prophecy had just been made by a self-proclaimed climatologist named Iben Browning, who falsely claimed to have predicted the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in California the year before. He predicted that a magnitude 7 earthquake would strike New Madrid on December 3, 1990. The prediction had no scientific legitimacy but it was widely reported in the national media, which promoted fear, anxiety, and hysteria among residents of the Mississippi Valley.

• In Memphis, the city recently spent $25 million to prevent the pyramid from being swallowed.

• AutoZone’s corporate headquarters also stands ready for some massive shakes. It’s propped up on top of giant shock absorbers.

• The nearby Memphis VA is another safe spot. The city spent $64 million dollars removing nine floors of the hospital to reduce the risk of collapse in a catastrophic earthquake.

And if you would like more hope, we talk about Seth Stein, a seismologist and professor at Northwestern who doesn’t think we should be worried about the New Madrid. Rebecca talks about his theory on the episode which sounds pretty solid.

But for all you Eeyores and Debbie Downers, Rebecca also talks about how scientist say Seth's scenario is a low probability scenario and that the NMSZ is still hazardous. They estimate that over the next 50 years, the probability of a magnitude 6 or larger quake is between 25 to 40 percent.

In short, if you are 36 years old or younger, there is a good chance you will experience an earthquake in the Mid-South that measures higher than a 6.

 

Finding A Place in History with Julie Mccullough

March 19, 2018
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Support this show via Patreon and get bonus content like our weekly blooper reel, digital wallpaper featuring Rebecca's artwork, t-shirts, signed books, and more!

In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Caitlin chats with Julie McCullough of  This Place in History, an Instagram feed we are excited to introduce you to. She typically features Memphis homes that are on the National Historic Registry, but you can find a few other types of historical nuggets on there from time to time.

Julie was motivated to start her American history inspired Instagram feed by a combination of things: seeing American Pickers, researching  her great-great-grandfather's story from Memphis history, and her architect brother's line of work. We talk about East Buntyn her stories about her favorite Memphis street (spoiler alert, it's Front), and learn about charming historical Memphis homes.

Her police officer great-great-grandfather was shot in the line of duty on Front Street chasing a robber who stoles a dollar from a lady downtown. He was the first police death for the city.

Citizens of Memphis and the Memphis Police Department raised $2,000 for Parkinson's family after his death. Mrs. Parkinson used the money to buy land in Rosemark, TN (near Millington) and some of which still belongs to Julie's uncle. Julie thinks that since the family moved from Memphis to Rosemark, she ended up growing up in Millington.

Julie also shares her personal connections to Front Street, including a meaningful poem you can find there on the wall.

We also talk about the haunted Mollie Fontaine home, a favorite of Julie's and one you can visit for a drink or a good hang, and we touch on the Castle, which was Julie's very first post! A year later she posted the back of the Castle to celebrate her one-year Instagrammiversary.

Next we move onto her explorations of Victorian Village, where the "big guns" are, and her explorations of Holly Springs and beyond.

Listen to this one to get inspired about exploring history in your own way... maybe you'll get an idea for a project too! For all the photos, visit memphistypehistory.com/place

Clarence Saunders: The Man Behind Piggly Wiggly

March 11, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Rebecca meets with Caroline Mitchell Carrico at the Pink Palace to learn the insane story of the man who started Piggly Wiggly and the concept of grocery stores as we know them today. Hear how he lost it all in a gamble and then started the brilliant process back over.

 

Caroline Mitchell Carrico is the Supervisor of Exhibits and Graphic Services at the Memphis Pink Palace Museum. That means she researches and writes for the exhibits at the museum and also has a hand at the designs and installations of the exhibits as well. The massive project they have been working on is a complete redesign of the Pink Palace mansion. She’s been working on it for about 3 years now. You'll hear a little bit about what we can expect to find in the new layout.

Clarence Saunders, The Idea Man

Caroline gives a bit of Clarence Saunders job history. One of his first jobs was at a country store. You could buy anything you want to there. That’s where his start was and then through a series of job transitions, he landed as a Wholesale Drummer in Memphis. That’s the person who would go to all the different country stores and drum up business. He would convince the store owners to buy things and talk to them about how to improve their sales and improve their products. He developed enough ideas to decide he wanted to start up his own store. Carolynn talks about how he got together with a group of other store owners and started the United Stores company in town, where they did bulk purchasing. And she also talks about how the old country stores ran during this time.

The Birth of Piggly Wiggly

Clarence decided his store would be a cash-only store, and it would be a self-service grocery store. He set up the store so that you had to walk through the entire store through a serpentine path so you had to walk through every item. At first, people had to rent a shopping basket but then he quickly changed that so you could just borrow the shopping basket at the front and then the only time you interacted with the staff was at the end of the store when you were paying. At the time, a lot of grocery stores let you order your items and they would deliver it to you. But Clarence did away with that. People bought their items and took it home with them.

The store we’re talking about is Piggly Wiggly and Clarence Saunders made sure to patent the self service design. He actually got numerous patents, such as the store fixtures. There were arguments that there were already other self service style stores but Clarence was the first person to franchise it and turn it into a really big model that fundamentally changed the way that we shop.

Carolyn says Clarence Saunders did his own advertising as well and it was quite the advertisement. Here's an ad she provided for our reading enjoyment. 

His store also essentially changed advertising for products as well because if people were now passing through goods and deciding which products to buy, businesses would need to make sure their product stood out from the others.

So Why the Name Piggly Wiggly?

One story is he was on a train and saw a bunch of pigs wiggling to get under a fence. Another story is during time he opened the store there was syndicated stories that ran in the newspaper called Uncle Wiggly’s bedtime tales and people speculate that it may have come from that.

It’s also possible that he just completely made up a funny name to be memorable but also possibly so to easily find people who were infringing on his copyright. He sued Hogglety Wogglety stores in Missouri and won because it was similar to his concept and name.

But Then He Lost it All

Saunders was the President of the corporation and he with the board of directors decided to list Piggly Wiggly stock at the New York Stock Exchange to raise capital. You'll have to listen to the episode to get the 101 on the stock market and how a sneaky plan backfired on Saunders, causing him to lose the company.

Did We Mention The Pink Palace Was Intended To Be His Mansion?

While the whole stock market incident happened, his mansion was still getting built (The Pink Palace). When he lost everything, the inside of the mansion wasn’t complete and he couldn’t live in it. He declared bankruptcy and lost the mansion and the estate which included Chickasaw Gardens and the Memphis lake. The plans for the Pink Palace was for it to be a millionaires playground. It was going to have a bowling alley, an indoor swimming pool, a Roman atrium, ballroom, a trout stream, a ridiculous amount of bedrooms. And as fascinating as this estate is, history also tells us that he cleared people off of this land so he could have it. Families were living on the property when he purchased it and they were forced to move and their houses were burnt to clear the land.

What ended up happening is the Garden Development Corporation from Kentucky purchased the land and mansion at the bankruptcy auction, they subdivided the neighborhood and created Chickasaw Gardens. At the time this was just outside the city. However, they didn’t know what to do with the mansion. They gave the property to the city with the expectation that it would become either a museum or art gallery or art conservancy and they wrote into the contract that it would only be for caucasian race because you know.. this was 1920. At the time there was already the Brooks Art Museum, The James Lee Art Academy was up and strong as an art conservancy, what the city didn’t have was a natural History museum. So they decided to turn the Pink Palace into the city’s Cultural and Natural History Museum.

And by the way, make sure to listen to the episode to hear additional fun facts about the mansion, such as how Clarence had a different name for it, its beginning days as a museum, and who the actual first people were to live inside it.

Clarence Saunders Stores was the name of his second grocery store. And then he was sued by Piggly Wiggly because they said his name was synonymous with Piggly Wiggly. The corporation lost the lawsuit and Saunders kept the rights to his name. So he named it Clarence Saunders Sole Owner of My Name Stores.

Clarence started building a second millionaire's playground further out East. It’s where the Lighterman Nature Center is today. Caroline thinks he called it Woodlawn. The guy was an avid golf player and built another golf course which was the longest golf course in the world at that time. He had built another lake and another house but this time he lost his business to the great depression and sold his estate to Bill Terry, the famous baseball player and manager for the Giants. 

Things Are Better In Threes

Clarence started a third grocery store and named it Keedoozle. It stood for "Key Does it All." The concept was to make it an automated grocery store where you would go in and take your key (the big metal box-like thing) and you would stick it in the drawers of the items you wanted for it to punch your key and then you’d take your key to the check out line where a machine would read your key and a conveyor belt system would bring your items out. The idea was to not have to carry anything until the end. Unfortunately it had lots of problems since it was a bit ahead of its time.

 

For full show notes, visit memphistypehistory.com/saunders

Bonus Episode: Fallout In China

March 7, 2018
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After Rebecca told the story of the USA's most famous fallout shelter, Caitlin wanted to dig up what these shelters looked like on her side of the world. This bonus episode tells you about what fallout shelters are like in Shanghai and a particular fascinating one in Beijing that's basically the size of a city.

For the full list of bonus episodes, visit memphistypehistory.com/bonus

Ladies Night Part Two

February 26, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Caitlin and Rebecca each pick a new favorite lady who left an impact in Memphis history to talk about. Turns out, they both picked musicians!

 

Elizabeth Lizzie Douglas (aka Memphis Minnie)

First up, Caitlin tells us about Elizabeth Lizzie Douglas (who we refer to as Minnie), a blues guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter, recording about 200 songs from the 20s to the 50s. People claim she was the most popular female country blues singer of all time, comparable to any man musician of the time. Elizabeth was born in 1897 in Algiers Lousiana, and moved to Walls, Mississippi with her family when she was seven years old. The next year she was gifted a guitar and by ten years old learned to play the banjo and began performing with her guitar, as "Kid Douglas" at parties.

In 1910 when she was 13 she went off to live on Beale Street, playing on street corners, staying with the folks when she was short on cash. There, she partnered up with Willie Brown, who is most famous with working with Charlie Patton. They headed to Bedford, Mississippi, a place that we assume to be well known for tourism in the time.

Next, Minnie joins the circus! The Ringling Bros. Circus 1916-1920 to be exact. But 1920 she returns to Beale Street, to perform on the streets again. It's believed she married her first husband Will Weldon in the early 20s as well. More well known was her second husband, Wilbur Kansas Joe McCoy, a blues singer from Mississippi. In 1929 a Columbia Records scout discovered them while they were out performing for dimes. They went of to New York City where the nicknames, Memphis Minnie and Kansas Joe became established. They played duets together, playing well known songs such as "Bumble Bee."

Minnie was super independent and elegant, chewing tobacco while singing and not missing a beat. By the 1930s, Minnie was very successful, went on tours and met her third husband, Little Son Joe, and began recording with him. When 1941 came, she picked up the electric guitar, and received her first hit "Me and My Chauffer Blues." Unfortunately, she didn't keep up with the trends of the late 40s and was dropped from the record labels.

Caitlin then goes over the end days of her life, she was one of the first 20 artists to be inducted in the blues foundation hall of fame, and Bonnie Rait paid for her headstone. Listen to the episode to hear what she had written on it.

 

Julia Ann Amanda Moorehead Britton

Next up, Rebecca talks about another famous musician Julia Britton, later known as Julia Britton Hooks. Julia was born in 1852 from freed African American parents in Kentucky. Her mother, Laura Marshall, was the daughter of Thomas F. Marshall, the Kentucky Statesman. She was also a well-educated and well-known singer and musician. This gift of musical talent was passed down to Julia. In fact, Julia was recognized a music prodigy, performing some of the most complex piano pieces.

We discover that this family was overall well respected. Julia's younger sister became the first African-American physician in Kentucky, her brother was a famous jockey, and Julia, at 18, enrolled at Berea College, making her one of the fist women of any race to attend college in the state of Kentucky. 

How Julia Came to Memphis

In 1872 Julia moved to Greenville, Mississippi. She taught school and soon met and married Sam Wertles but lost him the following year to Yellow Fever. After his passing, she moved to Memphis in 1876. Memphis was the musicians paradise and this is where she came to be known as the "Angel of Beale St."

Memphis is also where she met and married Charles Hooks, and it was a city they both greatly invested in. Julia was not hesitant to actively protest against racism and inequality, leading her to occasionally get arrested and fined. On occasion was in 1881 when she was arrested at a Memphis theater for sitting at the "white balcony" and refusing to move to the "colored balcony". 

Some of Julia's Greatest Contributions

In 1883, Julia and Anna Church opened the Liszt-Mullard Club to create opportunities in education for the black youth of the South. With the creation of this club, she was able to raise money to provide musically gifted black students to study music on a scholarship.

In 1891 she founded and became a charter member of the Orphans and Old Folks Home Club on Hernando Street where she'd purchased 25 acres. Three years later she had raised enough money giving concerts to pay off that debt. The purpose of the organization was to provide accommodations for orphans and elderly African-American women.

In 1892, Julia founded the Hooks School of Music and the Hooks Cottage School in response to the poor public education that black youth received in Memphis. The Hooks School of Music produced distinguished student musicians such as Sidney Woodward, Nell Hunter, and W.C. Handy. 

For full show notes go to memphistypehistory.com/ladies2

WDIA: USA’s First Black Radio Station

February 19, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Caitlin talks about WDIA, the first all-Black radio station in the U.S.A. We learn about how the transformation of this station into all-black programming and on-air talent exposed some of the best local talent to become major music icons we recognize today.

 

On June 7, 1947, WDIA transmitted onto the radio waves for the first time from its 2074 Union Avenue studio... one of just six Memphis radio stations at that time! Owned by John Pepper and Bert Ferguson, two white guys, the station played pop and country western music… and it headed towards bankruptcy very quickly. However, in October of 1948, they hired high school teacher and columnist Nat D. Williams, who started the first radio show for black listeners in the country on WDIA and saved the station.

Williams' show, Tan Town Jubilee, catapulted WDIA to 2nd most popular radio station in Memphis. The station then became the TOP station in Memphis after switching to all-black programming and all-black on-air talent. In 1954, the station increased to 50,000 watts, which meant it reached into the MS Delta, a bit of Missouri, and down to the Gulf Coast… which reached the ears of 10% of the black population in the US at that time. The station would go on to be known as the Starmaker Station because of the amount of exposure it provided local talent.

One thing that was really instrumental in the station’s success was that Williams was friends with Rufus Thomas, and got him onto the station… Thomas actually kept up his show until his death in 2001. Their ties to Beale Street got BB King’s career off to a start on the station as well as many other musicians. After Beale began declining, WDIA was really a big source of musical influence (even inspiring good ol’ Elvis Presley).

Another famous show on the station was called Goodwill. It covered civic news, missing children announcements, and raised money for community projects like scholarships, a bus for disabled kids, little league teams, and an orphanage, to name a few. The show turned into big fundraisers hosted by the WDIA DJ’s called the Goodwill Revue and the Starlight Revue. Big time local and national musicians like BB King, Rufus Thomas, Bobby “Blue” Bland, the Spirit of Memphis, Elvis, Sam Cooke, Muddy Waters, and Ray Charles performed for free. The local black community received about $100,000 a year from all of the Goodwill efforts.

Even though black talent and programming made WDIA so popular, and the staff was integrated in 1950 (rare for the South), it wasn’t until 1972 that Chuck Scruggs became the first black general manager and vice president. Under his 12-year service, the station helped raise money to preserve the Lorraine Motel and create the National Civil Rights Museum, and participated in the revitalization of Beale Street and the creation of the Stax Museum.

For full show notes go to memphistypehistory.com/WDIA

The Memphis Red Sox

February 11, 2018
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In this episode of Memphis Type History: The Podcast, Caitlin talks about the Memphis Red Sox and you'll get to hear our best sports announcer voices as we talk about the prominence of the team in the city and it's eventual decline.

 

The Negro League Comes to Memphis

The negro leagues had been around for a long time before a team ever started playing in Memphis. Oftentimes, those teams became some of the strongest black owned businesses in the communities in which they operated. This business began to end when Jackie Robinson began playing in the white major leagues in 1945. 

For more details about the league generally, look for some more details in the links section at the bottom. 

There was a black team as early as the early 1900's. Lewis park was built, where the Red Sox played, in the 1920's. It was the first black ball park in America. The owner also owned R.S. Lewis & Sons funeral home with a long tradition of caring for well-known members of the black community at their passing, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. after he was assassinated. Four brothers bought the stadium and the Red Sox. They were all successful business owners. The team was particularly profitable and well run... listen to the full podcast to find out how the Memphis ownership group was able to do so much better than many other teams.  

The Memphis Red Sox

The team played in various leagues throughout the time it existed. They were only considered a "major league" team for just one of those years. In 1938 was the team's most successful season. They played for the championship but while being 2 up in the series, it was canceled because of business conflicts with the other team, the Atlanta Black Crackers. The Red Sox never played for the title again. 

One of the brothers in the ownership group was run out of town for speaking up against Boss Crump and ended up going to Chicago where he owned another negro league team before eventually becoming the head of the negro league itself. 

The End of the Negro Leagues

The Negro leagues created spaces for the black community to use for many other gatherings, a social connection point, and they were often some of the most successful businesses in their communities and the country. However, that success began to falter after integration. With many of the best players going to "the majors" tickets began to slide and eventually, the negro leagues would come to an end. 

For full show notes visit memphistypehistory.com/sox